Home About us Editorial board Search Ahead of print Current issue Archives Submit article Instructions Subscribe Contacts Login 
  • Users Online:2099
  • Home
  • Print this page
  • Email this page


 
 Table of Contents  
REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2015  |  Volume : 29  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 21-28

Nonspecific non-acute low back pain and psychological interventions: A review of evidence and current strategies


1 Centre for Pain Research, Faculty of Health and Social Sciences, Institute for Health and WellBeing, Leeds Beckett University, Leeds, United Kingdom
2 Department of Physical Therapy, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada

Date of Web Publication1-Dec-2014

Correspondence Address:
Gourav Banerjee
Center for Pain Research, Faculty of Health and Social Sciences, Leeds Beckett University, Leeds
United Kingdom
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0970-5333.145929

Rights and Permissions
  Abstract 

Nonspecific persistent and chronic low back pain (LBP) is one of the world's most significant burdens. Its management continues to be challenging despite advancements in medical diagnostics and therapeutics. The purpose of this narrative review is to update evidence-based, multidisciplinary assessment and treatment strategies for nonspecific non-acute LBP with special emphasis on the growing influence of psychological principles in physiotherapists' (PT) practice. An electronic literature search was performed to identify relevant clinical practice guidelines, from which an overarching summary was synthesized. All guidelines were consistent in their recommendations for the assessment of psychosocial factors and psychology-based interventions. In discussion, we underlined psychological processes and psychology-based strategies that are clinically relevant to, and within the professional competency and scope of PT practice.

Keywords: Psychologically informed practice, persistent low back pain, chronic low back pain


How to cite this article:
Banerjee G, Bostick GP. Nonspecific non-acute low back pain and psychological interventions: A review of evidence and current strategies. Indian J Pain 2015;29:21-8

How to cite this URL:
Banerjee G, Bostick GP. Nonspecific non-acute low back pain and psychological interventions: A review of evidence and current strategies. Indian J Pain [serial online] 2015 [cited 2019 Dec 6];29:21-8. Available from: http://www.indianjpain.org/text.asp?2015/29/1/21/145929


  Introduction Top


Keeping abreast of the latest advances in pain science can be challenging given ever-increasing numbers of scientific publications, [1] and barriers such as time constraints, lack of access to paid journals, "incomprehensible" summaries, poor skills in literature searching and evaluation of research evidence. [2] Healthcare professionals in middle-income countries like India face escalated barriers related to limited resources in addition to those mentioned above. [3] These challenges and barriers can result in the lack of awareness of evidence-based practice. This narrative review aims to update nonspecific and non-acute low back pain (LBP) management and rehabilitation with special emphasis on the growing influence of psychological principles in physiotherapists' (PT) practice.

Low back pain is arguably one of the most extensively researched healthcare topics in the world. A simple PubMed search performed in May 2014 using keywords "low back pain" yielded 24748 results. LBP is a common and troublesome health problem in adults that adversely affects at personal, social, and economical levels [4] and can be associated with long-term disability. [5] LBP was once considered prevalent only in industrialized countries [6] but is now known that low- and middle-income countries are also affected. [7],[8],[9],[10],[11] Up to 80% of the general population will experience LBP once in their lifetime and about 15-30% are likely to be experiencing it at any given time. [12],[13] Depending on the definition, [14] prevalence rates of LBP have been varyingly reported in the ranges of 0-33% for point, 0-65% for 1-year, and 70-84% for lifetime. [5],[15],[16] The economic burden of LBP relates to direct (medical care cost), and in-direct (sickness leaves, compensation) costs to businesses and governments. [12]

Low back pain is classified according to 'diagnostic triage' that focuses on excluding specific spinal pathology and nerve root pain from nonspecific causes. [15] LBP is multi-factorial [17] and may have identifiable or 'specific' causes (red flags) such as infection, tumor, and fracture that usually respond well to biomedical interventions. [18],[19] However, in the majority (about 90%) of cases LBP can be nonspecific. [20] In other words, the person presenting with LBP will likely not have any demonstrable underlying pathology or apparent tissue damage relevant to the problem. [21] Nonspecific LBP can be defined as unidentifiable cause and source of pain and discomfort associated with soft tissue spasms or stiffness ranging from an area below the 12 th costal margin till above the inferior gluteal folds. [4],[22] Its diagnosis is difficult as the pain often ebbs and flows and could be coming from any of the adjacent anatomical structures in the lumbar region. [23],[24],[25],[26] Recent studies have suggested some [27],[28],[29],[30],[31] pathophysiological mechanisms for LBP; however, the evidence is far from conclusive.

Nonspecific LBP in about 80-90% of cases tend to be acute (<4-6 weeks) and self-limiting that either resolves with little or no treatment and or may continue to persist or reoccur for months with negligible discomfort. However, in about 10% of cases LBP can be persistent and severely disabling beyond 6 weeks. [4],[19],[32] The biomedical model, unfortunately, in such cases-despite great advances in diagnostic techniques and treatment methods has proved unsuccessful in achieving complete recovery; [33],[34],[35],[36] alarmingly, the prevalence rate in recent years is on the rise. [37] Evidence-based pain management approach suggests that instead of emphasis on identifying patho-anatomy and targeting interventions at them, focus should be on factors that significantly influence the course of LBP, and are amenable to change - that is, psychological, social, and environmental factors. [38],[39],[40] Appropriate early management of LBP is crucial as it potentially could decrease the risk of developing chronic pain, absence from work, disability and associated morbidity. [4]

Non-acute persistent or chronic disabling LBP is an interrelating consequence of physical, psychosocial and or occupational factors. [41],[42] As mentioned above, in the case of nonspecific LBP, psychological factors seem to take a predominant role in the development and maintenance of persistent LBP. [43],[44] We searched electronic databases for clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) on LBP to summarize the evidence-based recommendations for the assessment of psychological factors in LBP as well as interventions that attempt to mitigate the impact of psychological factors on the recovery of LBP. CPGs are "systematically developed statements to assist practitioner and patient decisions about appropriate health care for specific clinical circumstances" [45] and others such as referral services and prognosis. [46] CPGs are built on frameworks of meticulous synthesis based on methodological quality and evidence hierarchy that could include meta-analyzes, systematic reviews, randomized controlled clinical trials, observational studies, case series and expert opinions available to healthcare providers and agencies, policy makers, educationalists, and employers in simple understandable summaries. [47],[48],[49],[50],[51],[52]


  Methods Top


Clinical practice guidelines were identified in PubMed, CINAHL, EMBASE, National Guideline Clearinghouse, Guidelines International Network, National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence, Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network, and Canadian Medical Association InfoBase using relevant keywords "low back pain clinical practice guidelines" up to May 31, 2014. The criteria used to select CPGs in forming an overarching summary of assessment and management strategies are listed in [Table 1].
Table 1: Selection criteria for CPGs

Click here to view


Five CPGs that met the defined criteria and were included in this review are Canada's TOP, 2011; [53] United Kingdom's NCCPC/RCGP, 2009; [4] United States of America's ACP/APS, 2007; [19] Europe's COST B13, 2006; [47] Italy's IRCCS, 2006. [54] There was ambiguity in how duration of LBP was defined in these guidelines [Table 2]. For the purpose of this review, we included recommendations for nonspecific non-acute LBP.
Table 2: LBP duration

Click here to view



  Results Top


Overview of assessment

The diagnosis of LBP or 'red flag' assessment is usually performed during initial presentation based on diagnostic triage using focused history, suitable physical, neurological, radiological, and electrophysical examinations (not discussed in this review). Nonspecific LBP is a diagnosis of exclusion. Refractory and severe cases that have become persistent and chronically disabling may need to be clinically re-assessed for specific medical causes. All five CPGs were consistent in the following recommendations:

  • Do not advise lumbar radiographs (X-ray, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), CT scan), single photon emission computed tomography, bone scanning, thermography, lumbar discography, facet nerve blocks, laboratory tests, electromyography (EMG), or other electrophysical tests - unless a specific cause is strongly suspected. Offer MRI only within the context of a referral for an opinion on spinal fusion.
  • (Re)assessment of prognostic clinical, psychosocial and work-related factors (yellow, blue, and black flags) for chronicity, disability with work absenteeism, reduced quality of life and pain using suitable validated and standardized outcome measures.


The term "yellow flag" refers to modifiable normal psychological illnesses (e.g. fears and unhelpful beliefs). "Blue flag" and "Black flag" considerably overlap with each other and refer to social/environmental risk factors (e.g. workplace perceptions and contextual obstructions). For more information about flags related to clinic and workplace, refer to the work published by Kendall et al. [55]

Overview of management

[Table 3] presents a summary of LBP management strategies from guidelines identified above. An important observation is the unanimous emphasis on patient education, self-management techniques, physical exercise or exercise therapy and multidisciplinary rehabilitation involving psychology-based interventions like cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT).
Table 3: Common recommendations for management

Click here to view



  Discussion Top


The reviewed guidelines clearly articulate the importance of psychosocial factors in the development and maintenance of persistent or chronic LBP. There is a convincing evidence to suggest that the patient participation in treatment and rehabilitative outcomes are influenced by pain beliefs, attitudes, emotions, and behaviors. [57],[58] Assessment of psychosocial factors helps determining barriers to recovery and predicting patients who will have a poorer prognosis. [38],[59[59],[60],[61] The assessment should lead to targeted interventions [62] using cognitive behavioral approaches, [63] which will likely lead to good clinical and occupational outcomes. [38],[64],[65] Ignoring them, irrespective of biomedical interventions could lead to incomplete recovery and chronic pain-related disability. [63],[64],[66]

Potential psychological processes involved in persistent low back pain

Pain is an unpleasant subjective experience that has physiological and psychological components. Psychological factors are a "sequence of processes starting with initial awareness of a noxious stimulus, then cognitive processing, appraisal, and interpretation that leads people to act on their pain (i.e. their pain behavior). These processes are influenced by their consequences and are limited by the environment (e.g. cultural and social values)". [67] Linton and Shaw [68] have identified the following key factors:

  • Attention or vigilance is awareness to noxious stimulus or threat; associated with psychological responses like fight-or-flight, worry, anxiety. Hypervigilance is an abnormal focus on pain [69] and can be associated with the development of chronic pain. [70] For example, the misdirected problem solving model [71] suggests that patients who are hypervigilant can become stuck in a perseverance loop whereby efforts to solve their chronic pain are overly focused on biomedical solutions, despite continued experiences of biomedical treatment failure. A PT might attempt to facilitate a re-direction of goals away from abolishing pain and toward goals relating to improved physical function.
  • Interpretation is a result of highly complex cognitive and emotional processing of noxious stimuli that shapes behavior. Interpretation is influenced by:
    • Beliefs (e.g. negative - "pain is harmful")
    • Attitude (e.g. passive - "the doctor will fix my pain")
    • Expectations (e.g. fictitious - "going to work will hurt even more")
    • Distorted cognition (e.g. catastrophizing - "I'll end up in a wheelchair")
    • Emotional distress (e.g. depression - "life's not worthy anymore").


Interpreting pain as harmful could lead a patient to avoid activity. The fear-avoidance model [68] would suggest that fear of activity can create further development of chronic pain through a cycle of catastrophizing, depression, deconditioning and disability. [72],[73],[74] It is a misbelief that all physical activity be avoided to reduce pain. PTs might use educational strategies [75],[76],[77],[78] to alter this belief with the intent of increasing physical function.

  • Coping strategies are learned to attenuate noxious stimuli. It involves a combination of emotional, cognitive, and behavioral systems. Coping strategies that are passive in nature may impair a patient's capacity to manage their pain independently. In line with self-efficacy theory, [79] PTs should facilitate a shift in the responsibility of pain management toward the patient, to empower successful function despite pain.
  • Pain-related Behavior is a set of behaviors that are gradually learned and influenced by emotions and cognitions. These can be helpful or unhelpful and are our only insight into the patient's experience of pain. Pain behavior is observable representations of the psychological processes described above and can also reciprocally influence these processes.


Psychologically informed practice and physiotherapists

Despite the emphasis of biomedical training in PT education, PTs are well placed to screen and manage 'normal' but 'unhelpful' psychosocial processes that are amenable to change. [65],[58] A series of papers published in the American Physical Therapy Association's journal in 2011 (Physical Therapy, volume 91) discussed PTs' potential role in managing persistent LBP using psychological-based assessment and intervention strategies. It is, however, important to note that patients with psychopathology or 'abnormal' psychiatric symptoms ("orange flags" e.g. major depression, post-traumatic stress) must be referred to a mental health practitioner, that is, psychiatrist or clinical psychologist. [63],[65],[80] PTs in addition to psychological informed practice have been suggested to consider the workplace environment directly as well. Ergonomic and appropriate workplace modifications (e.g. transfer of manual labor to deskwork) can significantly influence work retention and early return-to-work. [81] Factors that are related to system and policies would need to have socio-political and economic considerations. [82]

AS identified in the CPG's, identifying psychosocial factors that could impede recovery is important. Prognostic indicators of LBP that are relevant to management strategies can be identified using tools like STarT Back Screening Tool. [83] This tool is quick to complete and easy to interpret. Patients identified as high risk are directed toward multidisciplinary management, or at least should receive management guided by psychological principles as discussed below. Interviewing techniques like Socratic style of interviewing [84] may also be required to gather insights about a patient's thought process. There are a number of tools available to evaluate different aspects of LBP-how the pain is perceived, how the patient responds to it, and how it affects the functional status and quality of life. Longo et al. [85] have overviewed tools that are commonly used clinically.

When chronic or complex pain is identified via the presence of yellow flags, a psychologically-informed approach is warranted. Nicholas and George [38] have identified opportunities for PTs to incorporate a psychologically-informed approach that is aimed at self-management, behavioral and cognitive changes. In addition, psychological principles for chronic pain management have been synthesized from a review by Roditi and Robinson. [86]

Biofeedback

The aim is to establish voluntary control on self-regulatory physiological processes. For example, learning how to relax soft tissues and increasingly become aware of spasms around lower lumbar spine using EMG feedback.

Distraction and relaxation techniques

The aim is to reduce hypervigilance related to pain, and stress that may have developed in isolation or combination due to the complex interaction of physical, environmental, and emotional factors. Techniques like diaphragmatic deep breathing, progressive muscular relaxation, guided imagery helps activate the parasympathetic nervous system and enables greater awareness and control of factors that lead to stress and pain.

Operant behavior conditioning

This involves modifying or correcting conditioned maladaptive behaviors that are learned based on antecedents/experiences and consequences/anticipation. The overall aim is to improve emotional and functional well-being. This approach has embedded components of CBT. Techniques include:

  • Education about neurophysiology of pain (in simple layman words) and the importance of physical exercise. Other important educational strategies include the use of positive self-statements to enhance coping skills, reassurance and promotion of physical activity, problem-solving approaches to overcoming potential barriers and setbacks, and restructuring certain cognitions (e.g. educating that resuming work at first may hurt but it does not mean harm and it should not set you back. It is a positive process toward rehabilitation).
  • Graded-exercise approach that engages the patient with the activity in a controlled and time-limited fashion based on pre-negotiated activity quotas (as opposed to determining activity based on pain alone). The patient's baseline tolerance to activity is first determined by performing a physical task until a point is reached where pain restricts the ability to continue the task. A baseline (usually 50-75% of tolerance) is determined, and activity commences based on this quota. The PT positively reinforces the attainment of activity goals. With patient's agreement, the activity is gradually increased in subsequent sessions ("pacing up"). An e.g. upgrading walking time and distance upon successful attainment of previous task or sub-goal.
  • Graded Exposure: In this technique, the patient is exposed to activities that are feared and avoided, and in subsequent sessions, the patient is instructed to gradually perform those activities broken down into individual movement components until the fear is abolished. E.g. a patient who avoids twisting of spine fearing pain aggravation is asked to do spinal rotation and side-flexion exercise in the supine, sitting, and standing positions, and finally activities related to daily living and work.


Goal setting is an integral component that starts with identifying mutually agreed goals between the PT and the patient. The identified goals are divided into specific sub-goals that can be gradually progressed in a stepwise fashion. The goals must be meaningful and realistic. The PT maintains effective communication at all times and monitors activities for responsiveness, modifications, and provides reinforcement.

Setting the right expectations

The aim is to optimize patient's expectations regarding functionally relevant, but realistic outcomes and minimize pessimism. The important aspect is to facilitate patient's expectations to managing pain and not curing it. Positive outcome expectancies will positively influence changes in cognitions and behaviors through interventions described above.

These approaches should be patient-centered by considering individual differences such as cultural background, socio-economic status, work-related demands, health habits, coping skills and other contextual factors. [68] It is important that once a case of nonspecific non-acute LBP has been made, there appears to be good evidence to diligently assess the role of psychological factors as opposed to solely focusing on anatomical or biomechanical causes of pain. Doing so may undermine efforts to mitigate maladaptive psychological processes during rehabilitation. [68] Finally, it is important to reaffirm that psychiatric fear, high-level anxiety (orange flag) will require expertise of a clinical psychologist or psychiatrist for advanced psychological interventions such as CBT and Acceptance and Commitment Therapy. Psychology-based therapy should be clearly delineated for PT's professional competency and scope of practice.


  Conclusion Top


A paradigm shift toward psychologically informed PT practice will not be an easy transition - both at personal and patient levels. It is challenging to encourage patients to return to active lifestyles despite their pain and perceived disability. Moreover, it can be challenging to incorporate new management strategies that have not been traditionally a focus of PT training. However, there is a wealth of freely accessible resources such as the IASP Curriculum guidelines that clinicians and curriculum designers can use to guide pre-licensure and professional education. Continuing Professional Development programs that involve workshops, conferences, course, self-directed activities and E-learning can be a good way for disseminating knowledge and training.

 
  References Top

1.
Rapple C. The role of the critical review article in alleviating information overload. Annual Reviews White Paper; c2011. Available from: http://www.annualreviews.org/userimages/​ContentEditor/1300384004941/Annual_Revie​ws_WhitePaper_Web_2011.pdf. [Last accessed on 2014 Apr 11].  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Iles R, Davidson M. Evidence based practice: A survey of physiotherapists' current practice. Physiother Res Int 2006;11:93-103.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Chatterjee P, Biswas T, Datta A, Sriganesh V. Healthcare information and the rural primary care doctor. S Afr Med J 2012;102:138-9.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Savigny P, Kuntze S, Watson P, Underwood M, Ritchie G, Cotterell M, et al. Low Back Pain: Early Management of Persistent Non-Specific Low Back Pain. London, UK: National Collaborating Centre for Primary Care and Royal College of General Practitioners; 2009.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Deyo RA, Cherkin D, Conrad D, Volinn E. Cost, controversy, crisis: Low back pain and the health of the public. Annu Rev Public Health 1991;12:141-56.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Volinn E. The epidemiology of low back pain in the rest of the world. A review of surveys in low- and middle-income countries. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 1997;22:1747-54.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Chaiamnuay P, Darmawan J, Muirden KD, Assawatanabodee P. Epidemiology of rheumatic disease in rural Thailand: A WHO-ILAR COPCORD study. Community Oriented Programme for the Control of Rheumatic Disease. J Rheumatol 1998;25:1382-7.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Hoy D, Toole MJ, Morgan D, Morgan C. Low back pain in rural Tibet. Lancet 2003;361:225-6.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Jin K, Sorock GS, Courtney TK. Prevalence of low back pain in three occupational groups in Shanghai, People's Republic of China. J Safety Res 2004;35:23-8.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Ory FG, Rahman FU, Katagade V, Shukla A, Burdorf A. Respiratory disorders, skin complaints, and low-back trouble among tannery workers in Kanpur, India. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 1997;58:740-6.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Sharma SC, Singh R, Sharma AK, Mittal R. Incidence of low back pain in workage adults in rural North India. Indian J Med Sci 2003;57:145-7.  Back to cited text no. 11
[PUBMED]  Medknow Journal  
12.
Hoy D, Brooks P, Blyth F, Buchbinder R. The Epidemiology of low back pain. Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol 2010;24:769-81.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Cassidy JD, Côté P, Carroll LJ, Kristman V. Incidence and course of low back pain episodes in the general population. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2005;30:2817-23.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
Balagué F, Mannion AF, Pellisé F, Cedraschi C. Non-specific low back pain. Lancet 2012;379:482-91.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.
Koes BW, van Tulder MW, Thomas S. Diagnosis and treatment of low back pain. BMJ 2006;332:1430-4.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.
Walker BF. The prevalence of low back pain: A systematic review of the literature from 1966 to 1998. J Spinal Disord 2000;13:205-17.  Back to cited text no. 16
    
17.
Richmond J. Multi-factorial causative model for back pain management; relating causative factors and mechanisms to injury presentations and designing time-and cost effective treatment thereof. Med Hypotheses 2012;79:232-40.  Back to cited text no. 17
    
18.
Waddell G, Burton AK, Main CJ. Screening to Identify People at Risk of Long-Term Incapacity for Work. A Conceptual and Scientific Review. London: Royal Society of Medicine Press; 2003.  Back to cited text no. 18
    
19.
Chou R, Qaseem A, Snow V, Casey D, Cross JT Jr, Shekelle P, et al. Diagnosis and treatment of low back pain: A joint clinical practice guideline from the American College of Physicians and the American Pain Society. Ann Intern Med 2007;147:478-91.  Back to cited text no. 19
    
20.
Rozenberg S, Foltz V, Fautrel B. Treatment strategy for chronic low back pain. Joint Bone Spine 2012;79:555-9.  Back to cited text no. 20
    
21.
WHO International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. Available from: http://www.who.int/classifications/icf/en/. [Last Accessed on 2014 May 30].  Back to cited text no. 21
    
22.
Krismer M, van Tulder M, Low Back Pain Group of the Bone and Joint Health Strategies for Europe Project. Strategies for prevention and management of musculoskeletal conditions. Low back pain (non-specific). Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol 2007;21:77-91.  Back to cited text no. 22
    
23.
Kellgren J. Observations on the referred pain arising from the muscles. Clin Sci 1938;3:175-90.  Back to cited text no. 23
    
24.
Kellgren J. On the distribution of pain arising from deep somatic structures with charts of the segmental areas. Clin Sci 1939;4:35-46.  Back to cited text no. 24
    
25.
Kuslich SD, Ulstrom CL, Michael CJ. The tissue origin of low back pain and sciatica: A report of pain response to tissue stimulation during operations on the lumbar spine using local anesthesia. Orthop Clin North Am 1991;22:181-7.  Back to cited text no. 25
    
26.
Marks R. Distribution of pain provoked from lumbar facet joints and related structures during diagnostic spinal infiltration. Pain 1989;39:37-40.  Back to cited text no. 26
    
27.
Wang H, Schiltenwolf M, Buchner M. The role of TNF-alpha in patients with chronic low back pain - A prospective comparative longitudinal study. Clin J Pain 2008;24:273-8.  Back to cited text no. 27
    
28.
Yamauchi K, Inoue G, Koshi T, Yamashita M, Ito T, Suzuki M, et al. Nerve growth factor of cultured medium extracted from human degenerative nucleus pulposus promotes sensory nerve growth and induces substance p in vitro. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2009;34:2263-9.  Back to cited text no. 28
    
29.
Karppinen J, Solovieva S, Luoma K, Raininko R, Leino-Arjas P, Riihimäki H. Modic changes and interleukin 1 gene locus polymorphisms in occupational cohort of middle-aged men. Eur Spine J 2009;18:1963-70.  Back to cited text no. 29
    
30.
Kalichman L, Hunter DJ. The genetics of intervertebral disc degeneration. Associated genes. Joint Bone Spine 2008;75:388-96.  Back to cited text no. 30
    
31.
Kalichman L, Hunter DJ. The genetics of intervertebral disc degeneration. Familial predisposition and heritability estimation. Joint Bone Spine 2008;75:383-7.  Back to cited text no. 31
    
32.
Koes BW, van Tulder M, Lin CW, Macedo LG, McAuley J, Maher C. An updated overview of clinical guidelines for the management of non-specific low back pain in primary care. Eur Spine J 2010;19:2075-94.  Back to cited text no. 32
    
33.
Shekelle PG, Delitto AM. Treating low back pain. Lancet 2005;365:1987-9.  Back to cited text no. 33
    
34.
Modic MT, Obuchowski NA, Ross JS, Brant-Zawadzki MN, Grooff PN, Mazanec DJ, et al. Acute low back pain and radiculopathy: MR imaging findings and their prognostic role and effect on outcome. Radiology 2005;237:597-604.  Back to cited text no. 34
    
35.
Vlaeyen JW, Crombez G. Fear of movement/(re)injury, avoidance and pain disability in chronic low back pain patients. Man Ther 1999;4:187-95.  Back to cited text no. 35
    
36.
Flynn TW, Smith B, Chou R. Appropriate use of diagnostic imaging in low back pain: A reminder that unnecessary imaging may do as much harm as good. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2011;41:838-46.  Back to cited text no. 36
    
37.
Freburger JK, Holmes GM, Agans RP, Jackman AM, Darter JD, Wallace AS, et al. The rising prevalence of chronic low back pain. Arch Intern Med 2009;169:251-8.  Back to cited text no. 37
    
38.
Nicholas MK, George SZ. Psychologically informed interventions for low back pain: An update for physical therapists. Phys Ther 2011;91:765-76.  Back to cited text no. 38
    
39.
Chou R, Shekelle P. Will this patient develop persistent disabling low back pain? JAMA 2010;303:1295-302.  Back to cited text no. 39
    
40.
Mallen CD, Peat G, Thomas E, Dunn KM, Croft PR. Prognostic factors for musculoskeletal pain in primary care: A systematic review. Br J Gen Pract 2007;57:655-61.  Back to cited text no. 40
    
41.
Waddell G. Low back pain: A twentieth century health care enigma. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 1996;21:2820-5.  Back to cited text no. 41
    
42.
Turk DC, Rudy TE. Towards a comprehensive assessment of chronic pain patients. Behav Res Ther 1987;25:237-49.  Back to cited text no. 42
    
43.
Pincus T, Kent P, Bronfort G, Loisel P, Pransky G, Hartvigsen J. Twenty-five years with the biopsychosocial model of low back pain-is it time to celebrate? A report from the twelfth international forum for primary care research on low back pain. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2013;38:2118-23.  Back to cited text no. 43
    
44.
George SI. What is the effectiveness of a biopsychosocial approach to individual physiotherapy care for chronic low back pain? Internet J Allied Health Sci Pract 2008;6:1-10.  Back to cited text no. 44
    
45.
Field MJ, Lohr KN, editors. Clinical Practice Guidelines: Directions for a New Program. Washington, DC: National Academy Press; 1990.  Back to cited text no. 45
    
46.
Woolf SH, Grol R, Hutchinson A, Eccles M, Grimshaw J. Clinical guidelines: Potential benefits, limitations, and harms of clinical guidelines. BMJ 1999;318:527-30.  Back to cited text no. 46
    
47.
Airaksinen O, Brox JI, Cedraschi C, Hildebrandt J, Klaber-Moffett J, Kovacs F, et al. Chapter 4. European guidelines for the management of chronic nonspecific low back pain. Eur Spine J 2006;15 Suppl 2:S192-300.  Back to cited text no. 47
    
48.
Arnau JM, Pellisé F, Vallano A, Prat N. Editorial Comment: European guidelines for low back pain - A necessary step forward and an opportunity not to be missed. Eur Spine J 2006;15 Suppl 2:S131-3.  Back to cited text no. 48
    
49.
Arnau JM, Vallano A, Lopez A, Pellisé F, Delgado MJ, Prat N. A critical review of guidelines for low back pain treatment. Eur Spine J 2006;15:543-53.  Back to cited text no. 49
    
50.
van Tulder MW, Tuut M, Pennick V, Bombardier C, Assendelft WJ. Quality of primary care guidelines for acute low back pain. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2004;29:E357-62.  Back to cited text no. 50
    
51.
Negrini S, Giovannoni S, Minozzi S, Barneschi G, Bonaiuti D, Bussotti A, et al. Diagnostic therapeutic flow-charts for low back pain patients: the Italian clinical guidelines. Eura Medicophys 2006;42:151-70.  Back to cited text no. 51
    
52.
Koes BW, van Tulder MW, Ostelo R, Kim Burton A, Waddell G. Clinical guidelines for the management of low back pain in primary care: An international comparison. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2001;26:2504-13.  Back to cited text no. 52
    
53.
Toward Optimized Practice. Guideline for the evidence-informed primary care management of low back pain. Edmonton (AB): Toward Optimized Practice; 2011. Available from: http://www.guideline.gov/content.aspx?id=37954. [Last cited on 2014 May 30].  Back to cited text no. 53
    
54.
Negrini S, Giovannoni S, Minozzi S, Barneschi G, Bonaiuti D, Bussotti A, et al. Diagnostic therapeutic flow-charts for low back pain patients: The Italian clinical guidelines. Eura Medicophys 2006;42:151-70.  Back to cited text no. 54
    
55.
Kendall NA, Burton AK, Main CJ, Watson PJ. Tackling Musculoskeletal Problems: A Guide for the Clinic and Workplace-Identifying Obstacles Using the Psychosocial Flags Framework. London: The Stationery Office; 2009.  Back to cited text no. 55
    
56.
Chou R, Loeser JD, Owens DK, Rosenquist RW, Atlas SJ, Baisden J, et al. Interventional therapies, surgery, and interdisciplinary rehabilitation for low back pain: An evidence-based clinical practice guideline from the American Pain Society. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2009;34:1066-77.  Back to cited text no. 56
    
57.
Main CJ, Foster N, Buchbinder R. How important are back pain beliefs and expectations for satisfactory recovery from back pain? Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol 2010;24:205-17.  Back to cited text no. 57
    
58.
Main CJ, George SZ. Psychosocial influences on low back pain: Why should you care? Phys Ther 2011;91:609-13.  Back to cited text no. 58
    
59.
Pincus T, Burton AK, Vogel S, Field AP. A systematic review of psychological factors as predictors of chronicity/disability in prospective cohorts of low back pain. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2002;27:E109-20.  Back to cited text no. 59
    
60.
Foster NE, Thomas E, Bishop A, Dunn KM, Main CJ. Distinctiveness of psychological obstacles to recovery in low back pain patients in primary care. Pain 2010;148:398-406.  Back to cited text no. 60
    
61.
Grotle M, Foster NE, Dunn KM, Croft P. Are prognostic indicators for poor outcome different for acute and chronic low back pain consulters in primary care? Pain 2010;151:790-7.  Back to cited text no. 61
    
62.
Bergbom S, Boersma K, Overmeer T, Linton SJ. Relationship among pain catastrophizing, depressed mood, and outcomes across physical therapy treatments. Phys Ther 2011;91:754-64.  Back to cited text no. 62
    
63.
Main CJ, Sullivan MJ, Watson PJ. Pain Management: Practical Applications of the Biopsychosocial Perspective in Clinical and Occupational Settings. Edinburgh, Scotland: Churchill Livingstone Elsevier; 2008. p. 97-134.  Back to cited text no. 63
    
64.
Nicholas MK, Linton SJ, Watson PJ, Main CJ, "Decade of the Flags" Working Group. Early identification and management of psychological risk factors ("yellow flags") in patients with low back pain: A reappraisal. Phys Ther 2011;91:737-53.  Back to cited text no. 64
    
65.
Main CJ, George SZ. Psychologically informed practice for management of low back pain: Future directions in practice and research. Phys Ther 2011;91:820-4.  Back to cited text no. 65
    
66.
Waddell G. The Back Pain Revolution. 2 nd ed. Edinburgh, Scotland: Churchill Livingstone; 2004.  Back to cited text no. 66
    
67.
Linton SJ. Understanding Pain for Better Clinical Practice. Edinburgh, Scotland: Elsevier; 2005.  Back to cited text no. 67
    
68.
Linton SJ, Shaw WS. Impact of psychological factors in the experience of pain. Phys Ther 2011;91:700-11.  Back to cited text no. 68
    
69.
Leeuw M, Goossens ME, Linton SJ, Crombez G, Boersma K, Vlaeyen JW. The fear-avoidance model of musculoskeletal pain: Current state of scientific evidence. J Behav Med 2007;30:77-94.  Back to cited text no. 69
    
70.
Peters ML, Vlaeyen JW, Kunnen AM. Is pain-related fear a predictor of somatosensory hypervigilance in chronic low back pain patients? Behav Res Ther 2002;40:85-103.  Back to cited text no. 70
    
71.
Eccleston C, Crombez G. Worry and chronic pain: A misdirected problem solving model. Pain 2007;132:233-6.  Back to cited text no. 71
    
72.
Vlaeyen JW, Kole-Snijders AM, Boeren RG, van Eek H. Fear of movement/(re)injury in chronic low back pain and its relation to behavioral performance. Pain 1995;62:363-72.  Back to cited text no. 72
    
73.
Vlaeyen JW, Kole-Snijders AM, Rotteveel AM, Ruesink R, Heuts PH. The role of fear of movement/(re)injury in pain disability. J Occup Rehabil 1995;5:235-52.  Back to cited text no. 73
    
74.
Vlaeyen JW, Linton SJ. Fear-avoidance and its consequences in chronic musculoskeletal pain: A state of the art. Pain 2000;85:317-32.  Back to cited text no. 74
    
75.
Moseley GL. Evidence for a direct relationship between cognitive and physical change during an education intervention in people with chronic low back pain. Eur J Pain 2004;8:39-45.  Back to cited text no. 75
    
76.
Moseley L. Combined physiotherapy and education is efficacious for chronic low back pain. Aust J Physiother 2002;48:297-302.  Back to cited text no. 76
    
77.
Moseley GL. Joining forces-combining cognition-targeted motor control training with group or individual pain physiology education: A successful treatment for chronic low back pain. J Man Manipulative Ther 2003b;11:88-94.  Back to cited text no. 77
    
78.
Moseley GL. A pain neuromatrix approach to patients with chronic pain. Man Ther 2003;8:130-40.  Back to cited text no. 78
    
79.
Bandura A. Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychol Rev 1977;84:191-215.  Back to cited text no. 79
    
80.
Main CJ, Phillips CJ, Watson PJ. Secondary prevention in health- care and occupational settings in musculoskeletal conditions focusing on low back pain. In: Schultz IZ, Gatchel RJ, editors. Handbook of Complex Occupational Disability Claims: Early Risk Identification, Intervention and Prevention. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum; 2005. p. 387-404.  Back to cited text no. 80
    
81.
Franche RL, Cullen K, Clarke J, Irvin E, Sinclair S, Frank J, et al. Workplace-based return-to-work interventions: A systematic review of the quantitative literature. J Occup Rehabil 2005;15:607-31.  Back to cited text no. 81
    
82.
Soklaridis S, Ammendolia C, Cassidy D. Looking upstream to understand low back pain and return to work: Psychosocial factors as the product of system issues. Soc Sci Med 2010;71:1557-66.  Back to cited text no. 82
    
83.
Hill JC, Dunn KM, Lewis M, Mullis R, Main CJ, Foster NE, et al. A primary care back pain screening tool: Identifying patient subgroups for initial treatment. Arthritis Rheum 2008;59:632-41.  Back to cited text no. 83
    
84.
Beck AT, Rush AJ, Shaw BF, Emergy G. Cognitive Therapy of Depression. New York: Guilford Press; 1979.  Back to cited text no. 84
    
85.
Longo UG, Loppini M, Denaro L, Maffulli N, Denaro V. Rating scales for low back pain. Br Med Bull 2010;94:81-144.  Back to cited text no. 85
    
86.
Roditi D, Robinson ME. The role of psychological interventions in the management of patients with chronic pain. Psychol Res Behav Manag 2011;4:41-9.  Back to cited text no. 86
    



 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]



 

Top
 
 
  Search
 
Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
Access Statistics
Email Alert *
Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)

 
  In this article
Abstract
Introduction
Methods
Results
Discussion
Conclusion
References
Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed2512    
    Printed39    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded377    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal